ANTIMICROBIAL POTENCY of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni as HERBAL MOUTHWASHES AGAINST CARIOGENIC BACTERIAL Streptococcus mutans
Background: Dental caries is a disease that is produced by the dissolution of local chemical surfaces of the teeth caused by product of microbial fermentation from dietary carbohydrates in the biofilm that attached to the teeth. Streptococcus mutans as the primary microbial pathogen in the aetiology of caries. They have a characteristic ability to produce voluminous amounts of sticky, extracellular polysaccharides in the presence of dietary carbohydrates, thus, help tenacious binding of the organism to enamel. Caries can be prevented by regular tooth brushing and flossing as mechanical plaque removal for cleaning the tooth.
However, for many individuals, it difficult to eliminate Streptococcus mutans from the surfaces of the tooth by mechanical means alone over prolonged periods. Consequently, for effective caries control, these methods should be combined with the antimicrobial agent such as mouthwash whould have a direct
inhibitory effect on the microorganism that can be bactericidal or bacteriostatic. However, they have several undesirable side effects reported from clinical studies. The use of medicinal plants is highly considered, because of side effects of chemical substances. Recently, Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves extracts as herbal mouthwashes are being tried and have been scientifically proven from several studies to be safe and effective to protection against dental caries because of its inhibitory effect or antimicrobial property against Streptococcus mutans. Purposes: The main aim of this literature review article is to explain the potencially
antimicrobial herbal mouthwashes from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves extracts towards cariogenic bacterial Streptococcus mutans. Conclusions: Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves extracts as herbal mouthwashes can be strongly recommended as a caries preventing agent.
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